NURS 354 Leadership in Research and Evidence-Based Practice

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Amanda Pruka
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Krueger Library 126
507-457-5143

PICO examples

 

Element of the clinical question  

Patient

Intervention (or cause, prognosis)

Comparison (optional)

Outcome

Example In patients with acute bronchitis, do antibiotics none reduce sputum production, cough or days off?
Example In children with ADHD do pharmacological stimulants (i.e. Adderall, Foculin)  non-stimulant medications produce reduced instances of impulsivity?
Example Among family-members of patients undergoing diagnostic procedures does standard care, listening to tranquil music, or audiotaped comedy routines make a difference
in the reduction of reported anxiety
?

 

Combine Search Terms

Boolean Operators 

Boolean Operators are words (AND, OR, NOT) that combine or exclude keywords in a search.  Of course you will want to use Education related keywords. This example illustrates how to include or remove subjects with keywords.

 

AND narrows your search

  • "Malcolm X" AND biography finds resources with both terms

OR broadens your search

  • "Malcom X" OR literarcy finds resources with either term or both terms

 NOT excludes terms

  • "Malcolm X" NOT "Denzel Washington" excludes all books with the term "Denzel Washington"

Boolean: AND OR NOT

Phrase Searching

Video Tutorials

Watch this 4 minute video for tips and tricks on developing and choosing keywords for your searches.

Additional Guides