NURS 354/375


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Amanda Pruka
Krueger Library 126

Levels of Evidence / Evidence Hierarchy

Levels of Evidence from LoBiondo-Wood & Haber (2022)


Research Designs

1 Systematic Review and/or meta-analysis of RCTs (randomized control trials)
2 Randomized control trials 
3 Quasi-experimental Studies
4 Non-experimental studies
5 Meta-synthesis
6 Qualitative studies
7 Expert opinions: reports from expert panels and organizations, not based on research

Adapted from LoBiondo-Wood, G. & Haber, J. (2022). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice (10th ed.). Elsevier.

Critical appraisal worksheets and calculators

Additional Guides

Evidence-Based Practice Models and Tools